Lake Natron is home to a diverse ecosystem of animals attracted to its shallow alkaline-saline soda lake. It is fed by groundwater that attracts up to 2.5 million flamingos. Lake Natron is a major breeding location for flamingos migrating Lake Manyara to the south and other Rift Valley soda lakes. The heat of the Rift Valley causes rapid evaporation of water that leaves high levels of saline (salt) and sodium carbonate. This creates an ideal environment for the micro-organism, cyanobacteria, to thrive which produces blue-green benthic algae flamingos feed upon. Whereas these caustic waters that can reach Ph levels of 9 that are toxic for most other creatures, the flamingos have adapted to it. The benthic algae provides a year round food source for the lesser flamingos.
The popular activities in Lake Natron involve a strenuous climb for the well-fit through crags of rock formed millions of years ago in the Rift Valley to bathe in cool waterfalls deep within a Rift Valley canyon, Oldonyo Lengai mountain climbing and lake tour.